Have Ithaca always in your mind. Your destination is to arrive there; but do not hurry your journey at all. Better that it should last for many years, that you cast anchor at the island when you are old, rich with all you have gained on the way, not expecting Ithaca to give you wealth; Ithaca has given you that splendid journey. Without Ithaca you would not have set out. Ithaca has no more to give you now. And if you find her poor, Ithaca has not cheated you. You have acquired such wisdom, so much experience, that you will have understood what Ithaca means.
Beloved, a book that has awarded Nobel Prize in literature, is written by Toni Morrison who is African American female author, inspired from real story of Margaret Garner, who kills 2 years old baby because of slavery in 1856, in order to show to world about African American people’s history. As a pioneer of African literature Toni Morrison is influenced by traumatic events she has experienced when she is a child as individually and society, for that reason, in Beloved Toni Morrison studies the afterlife of a traumatic death of caused by slavery in an impressive way. American has suffering slavery. Toni Morrison writes about effects of slavery from her perspective using supernatural events unlike European writers. There is a ghost which belongs to soul of Beloved who is killed by her mother because of slavery in the story. The story is meaningful and approachable for African American people thanks to belonging African American community in literature. In the story, main characters are Sethe and Denver and Paul D. who are searching for their family’s past. Beloved deals with impacts of slavery and racism on African American people in many ways.
ın conclusion,Toni Morrison wants to remind the history of African American people with a deep narrative by means of Beloved which is a novel based on real life. Sethe, Denver and Paul D as the main characters they suffer both psychologically and physically from as effects of dehumanization of slavery a novel based on real life. Sethe is treated like an animal by nephews of school and is forced to kill her baby because of slavery and etc. Denver is always being treated like she doesn't exist by her schoolmates because of her past and she is afraid of her mother. Paul D. always lives like an animal rather than being humankind all of his life until he gets his freedom. We can see that while all the characters suffer more physically from being slaves, they still have psychological effects on people. They cannot liberate exactly because their feelings, their personalities, everything are exploited. In fact, this novel, rather than being a novel, it tells everyone what a treasure it is to be free, not just for the African American people.
First of all, I must admit that I admire the author for writing such a ‘brief’ human history and for not being dull a single time.It was a delightful experience to read this book. I have read 465 pages all in one breath and quoted nearly half of the book. Every single chunk and word in the book seriously affected me. While reading it, it made me feel like I’m watching a documentary and a stand-up show at the same time. By saying that, I’m referring that I laughed aloud a lot and learned a lot at the same time. The book smoothly explains the evolution of things (money, trade, empires, civilizations, war, technology, religion, etc.) that contributed and accelerated transformation of individuals, but mostly human society. It tells us a story dating back to 30,000 years ago from a divine narrator point that can see the entire globe and can time travel. And the story explains a lot about the human history and makes me feel really strange to our own kind.There are also lots of enlightening memos, highlights and statements of some important people. The story doesn’t end at present date. It isn’t written what is going to happen, but it foreshadows a lot and gives hints about what might happen in the future. Finally, I’d like to end my review with a quotation which makes me think a lot “Every living thing will die eventually.”
How do you explain that the leading cause of death of women aged 15 to 19, worldwide, is suicide? An internationally recognized expert on global mental health and suicide said in an interview with the Telegraph: “The most probable reason is gender discrimination.”
In other words, misogyny kills.
There are plenty of shocking statistics in a recently rediscovered 2014 study on suicide from the World Health Organization. The report found that suicides are responsible for half of all violent deaths in men and 71% of violent deaths in women. It also showed that globally, suicide is the second leading cause of death for all young people between the ages of 15 and 29 years old. Yet, somehow, it took us until now to notice just how badly it affects young women.
Advertisement It was Dr Suzanne Petroni, the senior director for gender, population and development at the International Center for Research on Women, who first realized the chilling statistic as she was going through a WHO special report on adolescents. In a section on how maternal mortality has dropped, there was almost a throwaway line: “[M]aternal mortality ranks second among causes of death of 15–19-year old girls globally, exceeded only by suicide.”
Petroni called a friend at the WHO to make sure the stat was correct and then dug a little deeper: she found that not only had suicide taken over maternal mortality as the top cause of death for adolescent girls, but she told me: “it was clear that from at least 2000 it was a leading cause of death in this age group”.
“We need more research and evidence to tell us if it is actually happening for the reason we hypothesize it is – which is that gender norms and inequality have a significant link for suicide vulnerability”, Petroni said.
Petroni notes that adolescence is when gender roles and discrimination start to intensify globally. “There’s increased violence, child marriage, sexual abuse, exploitation, limitations on reproductive control and girls excluded from education”, she. In El Salvador, for example – where abortion is completely illegal – teen pregnancy (often the result of being the victim of rape or incest) is considered one of the leading causes of suicide.
And when you consider what the World Health Organization identifies as risks for suicide – discrimination, abuse, violence and conflictual relationships – it’s clear that these are risks disproportionately faced by younger women. Latanya Mapp Frett, the executive director of Planned Parenthood Global, told me that “around the world, girls are too often undervalued or neglected by their government officials, communities, and even their own families”.
Petroni and Patel’s conclusion also lines up with a study published earlier this year on the role of sexism in American women’s mental health issues. Researchers from the University of Missouri-Kansas and Georgia State University found that there was a link between women’s “psychological distress” and issues like sexual harassment, objectification and sexual violence.
If sexism impacts mental health, it makes sense that it would also impact suicide risk for young women, no matter where they live. Girls aren’t treated poorly just in one country; they’re treated poorly nearly in all of them.
According to the Centers for Disease Control, suicide is a leading cause of death for young American women, ages 15-24, second only to accidents. And we’ve read about more than one young woman in the United States and Canada who took her own life or attempted to do so after being sexually assaulted and then victim-blamed by their peers.
“Gender based violence can also contribute to depression and suicidal behavior”, Petroni said. “And sexual violence can happen anywhere.”
Sexism is different and more extreme in some places than others. But few, if any, countries are completely free of violent misogyny, and global statistics about the rates at which young women commit suicide tell a chilling story.
Frett told me that, to move forward, “we must put girls at the center of development and public policies, recognizing them as subjects of rights.” Petroni also offered some tangible solutions: “We need more data, we need to make sure that national health surveys monitor suicide attempts and that hospital systems improve their data”, she says.
Perhaps what we need most of all is the hardest thing to come by: equality.
It would be accurate to state that feminism is an umbrella term that has several different aspects within it. Matters are categorized mainly according to the position of women in society. The ideas have changed throughout the waves of feminism. The two familiar types of feminism which are bourgeois and socialist feminism have contrasting ideas with each other. It is apparent from the title of bourgeois feminism that the idea is related to the individual economy of women in the capitalist system. Bourgeois feminist movement’s main purpose is a voice for business women and for raising their career. It can be said that the movement links with upper-class women in society. Top Girls’ play represents these problematic conditions in working life with the protagonist who is Marlene. Because she has a high statue in her company and she states that she is a clever and powerful woman in her perspective. Specifically, two scenes show Marlene’s ideas. When Mrs. Kitty comes to her and says ‘what is going to do him working for a woman? I think if it was a man he'd get over it as something normal.’, Marlene gets angry because it is a big problem that women are seen as the second gender and their success is not seen. Also in the talking scene between Marlene and Joyce, Marlene explains that she left home for her career, and she sees it is normal. But when it comes to Joyce, as a character she is different from her. It is like the relationship between social and bourgeoise feminism and Joyce represents social or at the same time Marxist feminism. Because in her perspective, she needed to stay with her family and she has not the same opportunity as her. This is the main issue that social feminists want to point out. Everyone does not have the same opportunity in society. It is like the idea that Virginia Woolf discusses in her One's Own Room. Every women need to have their economical freedoom. But not everyone has the same economic and scholarly standards. Also, the idea refers to Margaret Thatcher because Marlene represents her and there is a lot of criticism for her. In that period, Thatcher did not work for all women in different classes. Marlene thinks that the years are spontaneous but in reality, there is a lot of women like her sister suffers for them to be rich more and more. These women are seen as second-genders. The idea also is related to scene one when Marlene has dinner with various historical characters. Even if they have done magnificent works, but in their time other women did not have the same opportunity. The characters were speaking very much but they were not listening to others. It is like a criticism that bourgeois feminism does not care for other's voices.
“The reason it hurts so much to separate is because our souls are connected. Maybe they always have been and will be. Maybe we’ve lived a thousand lives before this one and in each of them we’ve found each other. And maybe each time, we’ve been forced apart for the same reasons. That means that this goodbye is both a goodbye for the past ten thousand years and a prelude to what will come.” (“Ayrılmak için çok acı çekmesinin nedeni, ruhlarımızın bağlı olması. Belki de hep öyleydi ve olacaklar. Belki ondan önce bin hayat yaşadık ve her birinde birbirimizi bulduk. Ve belki de her seferinde aynı nedenlerden dolayı zorlandık. Bu demektir ki bu elveda hem son on bin yıldır elveda hem de gelecek olanlara bir başlangıç. ”) Nicholas Sparks