• Tüketim kapitalizmi ayrıca talep ve ihtiyaç yaratmak için heyecanlardan yararlanır. Emotional Design tüketimin en yüksek düzeye ulaşmasını sağlamak amacıyla heyecanların modelini çıkarır, heyecan şablonları biçimlendirir. Son tahlilde günümüzde tükettiklerimiz şeyler değil heyecanlardır.
    Byung-Chul Han
    Sayfa 53 - Metis Yayınları
  • Core product is the core value expected from a product. For example, the core value of a mobile phone is communication. The core value should be transformed into an actual product which includes product features, quality, and design as well as packaging and brand. For instance, Iphone is an actual product.
    Augmented product consists of warranty, after-sale service, payment options, and credits. In the case of smart phones applications may be part of the augmented product and may make a phone more competitive.
  • It is not that their environment was made to be suitable to them, but that they grew to be suitable to it, and that is the basis of adaptation. There is no evidence of design about it.
  • Tüketim kapitalizmi ayrıca talep ve ihtiyaç yaratmak için heyecanlardan yararlanır. Emotional Design tüketiminin en yüksek düzeye ulaşmasını sağlamak amacıyla heyecanların modelini çıkarır, heyecan şablonları biçimlendirir. Son tahlilde
    günümüzde tükettiklerimiz şeyler değil heyecanlardır.
  • Marketing Research Process

    Step 1: Problem Definition

    Each marketing research study requires a clear definition of the marketing problem encountered. Problem definition involves expressing the general problem and identifying the specific components of the marketing research problem. While defining the problem of marketing research, which is a very challenging process, it is crucial (1) to provide the researcher information he/she needs to understand the situation accurately, and (2) to guide the researcher during the research study. This approach acknowledges the need for open and continuous communication between decision makers and researchers in defining the marketing research problem.

    Step 2: Developing a Research Approach

    Once the decision-maker and the marketing researcher clarify the research problem, it is time to determine the correct approach to the research problem. This step frequently involves developing a theoretical framework, analytical models, research questions and hypothesis. Accordingly, this step begins with the selection, adaptation and development of a suitable theoretical framework that would support a research design. Throughout this step depending on the theoretical framework, the researcher decides on the relevant variables or factors to be measured or investigated; and then summarizes them in an analytical model depicting the interrelations between the variables or factors; and finally, develops research questions or hypothesis that would be examined or explored.

    Step 3: Developing a Research Design

    Research design is a detailed guideline depicting necessary tasks to be accomplished for acquiring the relevant information. A research design typically consists of the following tasks:

    - Defining the information needed
    - Identifying whether the overall design is to be exploratory, descriptive or causal
    - Devising the techniques for investigation or measurement
    - Organizing an appropriate form or questionnaire for data collection
    - Determining the sampling process and sample size
    - Elaborating the steps of qualitative or quantitative data analysis

    Each research design may be broadly classified under two research methods, namely exploratory and conclusive research.

    1) Exploratory research is a type of initial research that provides information to understand the scope of the current marketing problem. (...) helps apprehending marketing cases that are essentially difficult to measure, or cannot be measured in a quantitative manner, allows the marketers to identify the current marketing research problem more clearly; helps to define the major factors related to the problem and the relationships between them; develop hypotheses; and to specify actions to take.

    2) Conclusive research is conducted to describe specific marketing facts, to test pre-specified hypotheses and to examine specific relationships. (...) is more formal and structured, based on large, representative samples, and the data obtained are typically analyzed with quantitative techniques. Conclusive research designs may be either descriptive or causal:

    a) Descriptive research:
    •Describing the characteristics of groups such as consumers, customers, sales representatives;
    •Estimating the proportion of units that exhibit certain types of behavior within a specific group
    •Demonstrating the relationship between marketing variables.
    Descriptive research is structured and formal; therefore, it is conducted for testing certain hypotheses according to a pre-defined objective, in contrast to exploratory research.

    b) Causal research. Causal research investigates cause-and-effect relationships:
    •Determining which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect or result;
    •Defining the nature of causal relationship;
    •Predicting the possible consequences.
    As a result, similar to exploratory research, causal research is structured and formal. While descriptive research allows verifying the degree of relationship between variables, it would not provide information on the nature of causal relationships. On the other hand, causal researches examine the nature of these relationships, and are frequently designed as experiments performed in the most controlled environments.

    There are three basic principles that should be taken into account, when deciding the research design. First of all, the research design should be selected according to the marketing research problem at hand. Each research design serves specific purposes and it is not possible to use a single approach for all marketing problems. The second important principle is that the determined research design should be employed to provide accurate and required information. The third point is that each of the aforementioned basic research designs can be considered as a process of successive steps. These basic research designs could be used successively starting from exploratory research to obtain the required information.

    Step 4: Data Collection or Fieldwork

    This step of the process is about collecting the necessary data to obtain the required information; therefore, it involves a number of phases.

    The first phase covers deciding which kind of data is required to provide a solution to the marketing research problem. Key primary data collection techniques are summarized below:

    1- Interviews: Personal interviews and Focus group interviews.

    In personal interviews, a respondent and an interviewer converse face to face according to the outline prepared in line with the research objectives. Respondents are first contacted, and personal details are learnt, and then interested respondents are invited to attend to a central location at a specified time to participate in the research. Customarily, researchers offer the participants an incentive for compensating their participation. The interviewer should proceed in a neutral way to avoid exerting bias on the responses.

    The second type, focus group interviews, on the other hand, involves six to twelve participants who are guided by a moderator in a comprehensive discussion about the research topic or issue. The participants in the group have some common characteristics that are related to the research topic discussed during the interview. (...) the moderator should have the skill to get people talking about a topic in detail and in their own words without manipulation. The moderator also helps discovering the emotional involvement participants hold about the research topic. The moderator should keep the discussion alive and guide it towards a conclusion on which all participants agree upon. The moderator should move the group away from irrelevant discussion, and yet leave the group free to express significant new ideas. (Exploratory)

    2- Observation: In observational studies, primary data is collected through observation of people, actions and situations associated with the marketing problem. In the cases that require observation for a long period of time, or in cases that the relevant behavior is not frequently exhibited, the researchers try to collect data through ethnographic research. In ethnographic research, for collecting data trained observers are sent to observe and interact with the consumers or groups of interest in their “natural environment”.

    3- Surveys: Survey research, the most widely used approach for primary data collection in marketing research, is the most appropriate method for gathering descriptive information. Sometimes people are unable to answer survey questions because they cannot remember or notice why they perform such
    a behavior. People may be unwilling to reply to unfamiliar interviewers or to talk about things they consider private. Sometimes, busy people may not take the time for answering questions. In surveys data can be collected by filling in the data collection tool or the questionnaire by contacting the participants via mail, telephone, face-to-face or online.

    Respondents may give more honest answers to more personal questions on a mail questionnaire compared to an unknown interviewer or over the phone. Also, no interviewer bias would occur in the data collected.

    Telephone interviewing provides greater flexibility compared to mail questionnaires. Interviewers can clarify complicated questions and sometimes elucidate by probing, and the response rates tend to be higher than mail questionnaires as well.

    In face-to-face interviewing trained interviewers can show participants actual products, advertisements, or packages. However, individual personal interviews may cost three to four times as much as telephone interviews.

    Online questionnaires are high paced and low cost. (Fastest)

    4- Experiments: Experiments are mostly performed in order to determine causality or causal relations. In experimental studies generally identical groups of participants are selected, where one relevant factor is varied and other factors are remain constant. Researchers observe the changes or responses to different factors that are measured or varied.

    5- Sampling: Probability sampling, where each unit of the population is given a probability to be selected to the sample, and the confidence limits of sampling error can be calculated; but these procedures are costly. On the other hand, non-probability sampling procedures are cost and time effective, but do not give each unit of the population to be selected to the sample.

    Step 5: Preparing and Analyzing the Data

    This step of data preparation includes the editing, coding, transcription, verification, and analysis of data. The process of data preparation and analysis is essentially the same for both secondary and primary data.

    If the data to be collected are qualitative, the analysis step simultaneously takes place as the data are being collected, well before all observations or interviews completed. An integral part of qualitative data preparation and analysis requires researchers to reflect upon their own learning and the ways they interpret what they observe or talk.

    If the data to be analyzed are quantitative, each questionnaire or observation form is checked or edited. The data from the questionnaires are recorded to data analysis software. At this point, verification confirms that the data from the original questionnaires have been accurately transcribed, whereas data analysis gives meaning to the data that have been collected. Univariate techniques are used for analyzing data when there is a single measurement of each element or unit in the sample. On the other hand, multivariate techniques are used for analyzing data when there are two or more measurements of each element and the variables are analyzed simultaneously.

    Step 6: Preparing the Research Report and Presentation

    The entire marketing research study should be documented in a written report that addresses the research problem and objectives, and the research questions specified; describe the research approach and design, data collection and data analysis procedures employed; and present the major findings. In addition, an oral presentation should be prepared for marketing management using tables, figures and graphs to enhance clarity and impact.
  • Marketing Research: is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation that the company encounters. (...) the types of data that form the basis of information to be used in marketing decisions: primary and secondary data.

    Secondary data: can be described as data already collected for other specific purposes. Therefore, we can say that a large part of the information comprised within the marketing information system consists of secondary data. Secondary data can be obtained from two types of sources, internal and external sources.

    Primary data: (...) the manufacturer directly goes to the source of the data required, collect data, which is the primary data, and then transform it into actionable information. In cases where the sources of secondary information are insufficient, this specific information is gathered through marketing research and relevant strategies are developed in accordance with this information.

    The role of marketing research in supporting the marketing decisions can be summarized as helping to:
    •Describe the nature and scope of target markets;
    •Understand the nature of influences that shape target markets •Understand the influences that affect a firm’s ability to satisfy target markets;
    •Assess singular and interactive marketing mix elements; •Monitor past successes and failures in marketing decisions.

    Marketing managers can use target market research in order to acquire information on the market and market trends that can be used for future forecasting; calculate the market share of the brand and its competitors; and to define customers’ desires and expectations.

    Product research can be carried out for testing new product concepts and opportunities, revealing customer expectations on a new product’s content or design, and comparing the performance of an existing product with its competitors.

    Whereas sales research would help to evaluate the effectiveness of sales, sales area developing, and incentive and reward methods and techniques.

    Marketing managers can conduct distribution channel research to determine the most suitable distribution methods, the appropriateness of channel members, the best locations for warehouses and retail outlets.

    Promotional research would assist identifying the most appropriate method for promotion; the most suitable advertising and campaign materials; the most suitable media to be used; and also testing the effectiveness of communication in achieving the objectives.
  • THE MACROENVIRONMENT

    (...) cannot be changed or affected easily in short run. While some of these forces are unforeseeable and uncontrollable, others can be predicted and handled through skillful management.

    1- The Demographic Environment

    Demographics is the study of the measurable aspects of population structures and profiles, including factors as age, size, gender, race, occupation, and location. According to the definition of the United Nations, the proportion of elderly population between 8% and 10% means that the population of the relevant country is “old”, a proportion that is over 10% means “too old”.

    2- Generational Marketing

    Generations are assumed to have as much influence on buying and purchasing as demographic factors like income, education, and gender do, perhaps even more.

    Baby Boomers: (...) were born between the end of the Second World War and 1964 when birth rates intensified. (...) value individuality, self-expression, and optimism. (...) define themselves with careers in terms of their characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes and many of them are workaholics. Health, energy, and fitness are the main goals for them. (...) are self-centered and skeptical towards authority. (...) have turned to areas such as health club memberships, tightening body creams, supplementary foods, anti-aging products, hair transplants, hair dyes and organic product consumption. (...) don’t like bureaucracy (...) if they have a reason to fight, they give everything they have. If they believe that they buy a superior product with a good value, they will be less price-focused. (...) more interested in politics, pet care, nature, reading books and personal health care. (...) believe in opportunities (...) try to make a positive difference in the world in an idealistic way. (...) competitive and look for ways to change the system. In their early years, travel, food, and culture began to travel internationally to new and distant countries. Subsequently, they pay attention to mobility in their lives. Baby boomers have traveled more than the previous generations; have seen more places and have high expectations for the future.

    Generation X: Generation X is made up of individuals born between 1964 and 1978. They reached adulthood in tough economic times, and this had significant implications for Generation X. (...) regard themselves as self-sufficient individuals, capable of solving all kinds of problems. (...) technology is not a barrier but a facilitator. (...) pragmatic and individualistic. (...) pessimistic, skeptical, (...) are very educated but are not good team players, (...) balance family, personal, and work lives. (...) makes up 42% of Internet users in Turkey, (...) usually shop from value-oriented retailers. They may not be sure of their decisions, and often demand assurance for safety of options. Marketers can help them in planning their future and balancing business, family and personal lives. (...) both cynical and informed about products, advertising, and shopping.

    Generation Y (Millennials): (...) born between 1979 and 2000. (...) socially very conscious and sensitive to environmental issues. (...) confident, selective and impatient. (...) grown at a time when there has been endless and rapid changes (...) Eight fundamental values of Gen Y are; selection, individualization, detailed review, integrity, business association, speed, entertainment, and innovation. A steady stream of information has become a rule for this generation. They can do more than one job at the same time. (...) This generation creates significant opportunities for marketers through the Internet and other technologies used. However, the Gen Y wants to decide when, where, and how they communicate by themselves. (...) prefer to interact with friends and messages on social network sites (...) Content is the king for this generation. It is imperative to make the content portable from one platform to another without any limitations. Many of the Gen Y are content creators, distributors, and users. Marketers are trying to reach and persuade this generation by online viral campaigns, brand ambassadors, sponsorships, cool events, product placements, and videos.

    Generation Z: Those born after 2000, (...) Their parents married at later ages compared to the previous generations. They have faced global terrorism, consequences of 9/11 attacks, violence at schools, economic uncertainty, stagnation, and mortgage crisis. (...) Gen Z is the new conservatives with their traditional beliefs, family cohesion, self-control and more responsible behavior. (...) accustomed to high technology and multiple sources of information with message bombardment from all sides. (...) values realism, peer acceptance, (...) look for belonging.
    Those who are employed in the marketing sector are now technologically facing more advanced new consumer groups.

    Generation Alpha: (...) generation born after 2010. (...) the most transformational generation.

    3-The Economic Environment

    Economic environment consists of factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns.

    Macroeconomic factors deal with the management of demand in the economy; the main mechanisms that governments use are interest rate controls, taxation policy, and government expenditure. If government increases expenditure (or reduces taxation), there will be more money in the economy and demand will rise; if tax is increased (or expenditure cut), there will be less money for consumers to spend which as a result demand will shrink. Rises in interest rates tend to reduce demand, as home loans become more expensive and credit card charges rise.

    Micro-economic factors are to do with the way people spend their incomes. Some countries are defined as industrial economies. Industrial economies represent rich markets that can afford to buy many different products and services. On the other extreme are subsistence economies that consume most of their own agricultural and industrial output and offer few market opportunities for the companies. Between these two extremes, there are developing economies that offer outstanding marketing.

    Value marketing involves offering financially cautious buyers greater value—the right combination of quality and service at a fair price. Consumers’ interest on private labels increase on economically hard times. A private label product is manufactured by a contract or third-party manufacturer and sold under a retailer’s brand name.

    Over the past several decades, income inequality has increased. This distribution of income has created a segmented market. Many companies like Gucci and Prada aggressively target affluent customers. Other companies such as BİM and A101 target those with less income.

    4- The Natural Environment

    Natural disasters like earthquakes and flood affect companies. Marketers should be cautious about several trends in the natural environment.

    The first trend involves growing shortages of raw materials. Therefore, companies are searching for new sources of energy.

    Increased pollution is another environmental trend that affects society. Production and disposal processes and product packages may damage natural environment: water resources, air, and soil. Environmentally conscious customers are considering the companies’ environmental strategies in their purchase decisions.

    Government intervention is another rising trend about the natural environment. Governments try to protect natural resources and ensure clean environment with laws and regulations. Regulation of natural environment can be an opportunity or threat. Environmental sustainability is meeting the present needs of consumers while preserving and protecting the limited natural resources for future generations. Green marketing is the effort of companies to choose packaging, design and other aspects of the product that are nature-friendly.

    5- The Technological Environment

    Changes in energy, transportation, information, and communication technologies increase the productivity and business efficiency. Changes in the technology provides new ways to satisfy the customer needs as in the case of music listening. When monitoring technological environment or entering a foreign market, research and development (R&D) expenditures of competitors and related countries are of key indicators.

    6- The Legal and Political Environment

    The political and legal environment covers external factors controlled by governments, both international, national, local authorities extends, and other trade or activity oriented by regulatory bodies. Although the legal environment relates to laws and regulations associated with consumers and business practices, the political environment relates to the period of interaction between business, society, and government before those laws are enacted, when they are still being formed, or are in dispute. (...) Companies should also consider EU legislation, which takes precedence over national law. (...) government controls in business are as follows: patent legislation, taxation, safety regulations, contract law, consumer protection legislation and control of working hours. (...) Companies are increasingly developing their own code of ethics. They are now developing policies, guidelines, and other responses to complex social responsibility issues. (...) Similar to mission and vision statements of companies, we may find the code of ethics in the companies’ websites. (...) Cause-related marketing is a marketing strategy in which an organization serves its society by promoting and supporting a worthy cause or by allying itself with not-for-profit organizations to solve a social problem. For each product sold, company donates an amount of money out of the price customer paid for product to a non-profit organization or a worthy social cause.

    7- The Cultural Environment

    Culture includes religion, language, customs, behaviors, and beliefs. Cultural environment includes lifestyles, norms, traditions and customs, habits, religion and beliefs. These factors affect how people in a society think, and therefore, how they consume.
    Global companies may affect a society’s culture in long run. In international markets, there are two main marketing options as standardization and adaptation. In standardization, the company uses same strategies and campaigns in different cultures. In adaptation strategy, companies make changes in marketing mix based on the culture of different countries.