1- The Company: (...) top management, (...) departments like finance, research & development (R&D) and production
2- Suppliers: (...) supplying defective materials or parts, (...) supplier fails to meet delivery on time, (...) Shortages or delays in the supply of goods, labor strikes, (...) could affect sales in short run and damage customer satisfaction in long run. (...) rising supply costs might force price increases that can harm the company’s sales volume in return.
3- Marketing Intermediaries: (...) are firms that help companies to promote, sell and distribute their products to final customers. (...) an essential component of company’s overall value delivery system like suppliers. (...) today’s marketers define marketing intermediaries as their partners instead of merely channels, through which products are sold. Marketing intermediaries are resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies and financial intermediaries.
a- Resellers: (...) distribution channel companies that help the company to find and/or sell customers. (Wholesalers and retailers for example) (....) (Big) resellers have usually more power than many small producers. They can dictate business terms or even shut manufacturers out of a market.
b- Physical distribution firms: (...) help companies to stock and move goods from their points of origin to their final destinations. (...)They work with warehouses and transportation firms.
c- Marketing services agencies: (...) are made up of marketing research companies, advertising agencies, media firms, public relations companies, and marketing consultancy companies that help the company to reach its target and promote its products in suitable markets.
d- Financial intermediaries: (...) banks, credit companies, insurance companies etc.
4- Competitors: (...) on price, product quality, variety, availability, features and after-sales services, etc. (...) companies are frequently unsuccessful in identifying their competitors (...) explain competition too narrowly due to defining their field of business narrowly. (...) Marketing managers need to know the closest suitable substitutes that are offered by competitors to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants.
5- Publics: (...) are the groups of people who have an interest in the marketer’s ability to achieve their objectives. (...) can be categorized into seven types:
a- Financial publics: (...) influence company’s ability to get financial funds. (Banks, investors, and stockholders)
b- Media publics: Press, television, radio and social media + columnists, bloggers, and YouTubers etc.
c- Government publics: (...) product safety, truth in advertising and consumer rights can be complicated for companies. For this reason, they need to consult with their lawyers. (...) may be local, national and international agencies. Companies try to influence government decisions by lobbying, trade associations and defending their interests.
d- Citizen action publics: Consumer organizations, environmental groups, minority groups and other pressure groups generally question the marketing activities of companies in terms of the impact on the society’s welfare. (Greenpeace) Public relation departments can help companies stay in touch with consumer and citizen action groups. Otherwise, the company may face protests and even boycotts.
e- Local publics: (...) neighborhood residents and community organizations. Companies should not ignore the community needs and problems. They should attend meetings, answer citizens’ questions and contribute to worthwhile causes to develop a positive relationship. Local publics expect companies to engage with local community in some way.
f- General public: The public’s overall image of the company affects buying behavior. (...) sponsor social events, make corporate advertisements to promote (itself), build a healthy corporate image, (...) social responsibility projects.
g- Internal publics: (...) company’s workers, managers, volunteers and board of directors. (...) use newsletters and Intranets to inform and motivate internal publics. (...) happy employee is the best advertisement for a company.
6-Customers: All types of customers may buy the same products (...) however, marketing tools that are used and messages that are delivered are different.
a- Consumer markets (individuals and households who buy small amounts of goods and services for personal consumption), -sell through mass communication
b- Business markets (large amounts for further processing or to use in production, sell through personal selling and advertisement in a sector’s magazine for example, more rational than consumer)
c- Reseller markets (retailers and wholesalers)
d- Government markets (government agencies that buy goods and services in order to produce public services or transfer the products and services to others who need them)
e- International markets