• A prince cannot rely upon what he observes in quiet times, when citizens have need of the state, because then every one agrees with him; they all promise, and when death is far distant they all wish to die for him; but in troubled times, when the state has need of its citizens, then he finds but few. Therefore a wise prince ought to adopt such a course that his citizens will always in every sort and kind of circumstance have need of the state and of him, and then he will always find them faithful.
  • A business cycle refers to short term fluctuations in general economic activities. Businesses should know whether an economic system is expanding or contracting. The primary measure of growth (economic expansion) is gross domestic product (GDP). GDP refers to the total value of all goods and services during a given period through its use of domestic factors of production. GDP per capita is GDP divided by the total population and is a reflection of the citizens’ standard of living. Standard of living is the value of all goods and services produced in an economic system that people can purchase. Real GDP is GDP adjusted for price changes which shows real economic growth rate, expressed as a percentage rate of change of real GDP from one year to the next. Recession is a significant period of weakening in economic activities in which real GDP drops.

    1- The Company: (...) top management, (...) departments like finance, research & development (R&D) and production

    2- Suppliers: (...) supplying defective materials or parts, (...) supplier fails to meet delivery on time, (...) Shortages or delays in the supply of goods, labor strikes, (...) could affect sales in short run and damage customer satisfaction in long run. (...) rising supply costs might force price increases that can harm the company’s sales volume in return.

    3- Marketing Intermediaries: (...) are firms that help companies to promote, sell and distribute their products to final customers. (...) an essential component of company’s overall value delivery system like suppliers. (...) today’s marketers define marketing intermediaries as their partners instead of merely channels, through which products are sold. Marketing intermediaries are resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies and financial intermediaries.

    a- Resellers: (...) distribution channel companies that help the company to find and/or sell customers. (Wholesalers and retailers for example) (....) (Big) resellers have usually more power than many small producers. They can dictate business terms or even shut manufacturers out of a market.

    b- Physical distribution firms: (...) help companies to stock and move goods from their points of origin to their final destinations. (...)They work with warehouses and transportation firms.

    c- Marketing services agencies: (...) are made up of marketing research companies, advertising agencies, media firms, public relations companies, and marketing consultancy companies that help the company to reach its target and promote its products in suitable markets.

    d- Financial intermediaries: (...) banks, credit companies, insurance companies etc.

    4- Competitors: (...) on price, product quality, variety, availability, features and after-sales services, etc. (...) companies are frequently unsuccessful in identifying their competitors (...) explain competition too narrowly due to defining their field of business narrowly. (...) Marketing managers need to know the closest suitable substitutes that are offered by competitors to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants.

    5- Publics: (...) are the groups of people who have an interest in the marketer’s ability to achieve their objectives. (...) can be categorized into seven types:

    a- Financial publics: (...) influence company’s ability to get financial funds. (Banks, investors, and stockholders)

    b- Media publics: Press, television, radio and social media + columnists, bloggers, and YouTubers etc.

    c- Government publics: (...) product safety, truth in advertising and consumer rights can be complicated for companies. For this reason, they need to consult with their lawyers. (...) may be local, national and international agencies. Companies try to influence government decisions by lobbying, trade associations and defending their interests.

    d- Citizen action publics: Consumer organizations, environmental groups, minority groups and other pressure groups generally question the marketing activities of companies in terms of the impact on the society’s welfare. (Greenpeace) Public relation departments can help companies stay in touch with consumer and citizen action groups. Otherwise, the company may face protests and even boycotts.

    e- Local publics: (...) neighborhood residents and community organizations. Companies should not ignore the community needs and problems. They should attend meetings, answer citizens’ questions and contribute to worthwhile causes to develop a positive relationship. Local publics expect companies to engage with local community in some way.

    f- General public: The public’s overall image of the company affects buying behavior. (...) sponsor social events, make corporate advertisements to promote (itself), build a healthy corporate image, (...) social responsibility projects.

    g- Internal publics: (...) company’s workers, managers, volunteers and board of directors. (...) use newsletters and Intranets to inform and motivate internal publics. (...) happy employee is the best advertisement for a company.

    6-Customers: All types of customers may buy the same products (...) however, marketing tools that are used and messages that are delivered are different.

    a- Consumer markets (individuals and households who buy small amounts of goods and services for personal consumption), -sell through mass communication

    b- Business markets (large amounts for further processing or to use in production, sell through personal selling and advertisement in a sector’s magazine for example, more rational than consumer)

    c- Reseller markets (retailers and wholesalers)

    d- Government markets (government agencies that buy goods and services in order to produce public services or transfer the products and services to others who need them)

    e- International markets
  • Economic institutions shape economic incentives: the incentives to become educated, to save and invest, to innovate and adopt new technologies, and so on. It is the political process that determines what economic institutions people live under, and it is the political institutions that determine how this process works.
    For example, it is the political institutions of a nation that determine the ability of citizens to control politicians and influence how they behave.
    This in turn determines whether politicians are agents of the citizens, albeit imperfect, or are able to abuse the power entrusted to them, or that they have usurped, to amass their own fortunes and to pursue their own agendas, ones detrimental to those of citizens.
    James A. Robinson
    Sayfa 42 - Crown Publishing
  • Senedi İttifak (1808) was a kind of document in order to set balance and maintain relationships between the Sultan and nobles.

    -Gülhane Hattı Humayunu/Tanzimat Fermanı (1839) was the first action taken in the way of constitutional steps. The document granted equal rights to muslims and minorities regarding honour, modesty, right to property and life, judiciary, military service and tax liabilities. Undertakings of Tanzimat Fermanı was approved by Islahat Fermanı (1856).

    -Kanuni Esasi (1876) was the first constitution-like document in order to limit powers of rulers. In this era and document the supreme authority and personality of the Sultan was kept as the Ottoman Monarchy remained while two assemblies Heyeti Ayan (members appointed by Sultan) and Heyeti Mebusan (members elected by citizens) constituted parliament (Meclis-i Umumi). The competence of the parliament was limited and without the consent of the Sultan, laws could not enter into force. In addition, responsibility of the Sultan was not articulated in the Kanuni Esasi, accordingly, Sultan was predominant as regards to powers. Soon after, in 1878, Sultan dissolved Heyeti Mebusan and autocracy was back in stage.
    Equality, security of property, personal immunity, right to education, prohibition of angaria and tax duties under laws were examples of fundamental rights and freedoms stated in Tanzimat Fermanı.

    In 1909, major amendments took place and powers of the Sultan were restricted while powers of Meclisi Mebusan were expanded. Then, consent of the Sultan for promulgation of laws was abolished and duty of the Sultan towards Meclisi Mebusan was articulated.

    -Teşkilatı Esasiye Kanunu, namely the Constitution of 1921, was made by the Grand National Assembly that was established on April 23, 1920. The main principle underlining democracy in the Constitution of 1921 was the sovereignty belonged unconditionally to the nation. Besides, principle of unification of powers was accepted while assembly government system was in force. Under the ruling of the Constitution of 1921 the proclamation of the Turkish Republic took place on October 29, 1923.

    -The Constitution of 1924 was the first constitution of the Turkish Republic. It consisted of principles for both assembly government and parliamentary system at the same time. Sovereign powers of the nation –legislative and executive– were vested in the Grand National Assembly.
    As for the powers;
    Article 6, States That The Grand National Assembly of Turkey exercises the legislative power directly.
    Article 7, According to The Assembly exercises the executive power through the intermediary of the President of the Republic, whom it elects, and through a Cabinet chosen by him. The Assembly control the acts of the government and may at any time withdraw power from it.
    The judicial power is exercised in the name of the Assembly by independent tribunals constituted in accordance with the law.

    The first version of the Turkish Constitution of 1924 accepted Islam as the religion of the State; however, this provision was abolished in 1928. Long after the Constitution of 1924 also introduced the principle of secularism.

    - The Constitution of 1961 was the second constitution of the Turkish Republic. The characteristics of the Republic were stated to be “nationalistic, democratic, secular and social State governed by the rule of law, based on human rights and the fundamental tenets set forth in the preamble.” Supremacy and binding force of the constitution was guaranteed by article 8 that stated, “Laws shall not be in conflict with the Constitution. The provisions of the Constitution shall be the fundamental legal principles binding the legislative, executive and judicial organs, administrative authorities and individuals.”
    The sovereignty was vested in the nation unconditionally and without reservation. State organs to exercise sovereignty were legislative, executive and judiciary. Separation of powers was accepted. The legislative power was vested in the Turkish Grand Assembly; the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers used executive “function”; the independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation exercised judicial power. As for constitutionality of laws the Constitutional Court was established and introduced in the Constitution of 1961.

    In 1971, major changes took place in the Constitution including restrictions on fundamental rights and freedoms, expansion of executive powers and establishment of military courts.

    The Constitution of 1982 is the current constitution of the State of Turkish Republic. (...decide with the majority of three-fifths of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to proclaim amnesty and pardon)
  • The individual application has been introduced into the Turkish Legal System by the constitutional amendment made on 12.09.2010 with the Law No 5982. By this amendment the individual application was enshrined in the article 148 of the Constitution as follows:
    “1. The Constitutional Court shall … decide on individual applications. …
    3. Everyone may apply to the Constitutional Court on the grounds that one of the fundamental rights and freedoms within the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights, which are guaranteed by the Constitution, has been violated by public authorities. In order to make an application, ordinary legal remedies must be exhausted.

    The article 45/1 of the Law No 6216 states that:
    “Everyone can apply to the Constitutional Court based on the claim that any one of the fundamental rights and freedoms within the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights and the additional protocols thereto, to which Turkey is a party, which are guaranteed by the Constitution has been violated by public force.”


    Below cannot fall under the competence of the Constitutional Court with regards to the individual application:
    •legislative acts and legislative decrees,
    •regulatory administrative acts,
    •decisions of the Constitutional Court,
    •acts of the President of the Republic in his/her own competence (Article 125/2 of the Constitution)
    •decisions of the Supreme Military Council on promotion and retiring due to lack of tenure, (Article 125/2 of the Constitution) •decisions of the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors other than dismissal from the profession (Article 159/10 of the Constitution)


    Professional organizations, non-governmental organizations and unions are not considered to be eligible for individual application. (...) Concerning foreigners the article 46/3 of the Law No 6216 states that foreigners may have standing for fundamental rights and freedoms, except for the rights exclusively recognized for Turkish citizens.


    Under the article 47/1 of the Law No 6216 individual applications could be made directly, through courts, (or) through representatives abroad. According to the article 47/5 of the Law No 6216 the individual application should be made within thirty days starting from the exhaustion of legal remedies / from the date when the violation is known if no remedies are envisaged. (+15 days excuse time)
  • On the night of January 18, 1991, during the Gulf War, Scud missiles launched by Iraqi troops began exploding in Israeli communities. Citizens were alerted by howling air-raid sirens that blared from outdoor speakers and on the radio and TV. Since there was a terrifying possibility that the bombs were carrying chemical payloads in addition to their explosive power, the frightened populations had been instructed to don gas masks and seek shelter when they heard the wail of a siren.
    In the maternity ward of a Tel Aviv-area hospital that night, three women were in labor. As is standard practice, they had been fitted with fetal heart monitors that strapped around their bellies to keep track of their babies’ heartbeats. At three a.m., a sudden, terrifying shriek of a Scud alert siren penetrated the walls of the maternity ward—and, apparently, the wombs of the expectant mothers. As hospital staff scrambled to put gas masks on themselves and their patients, the nurses noticed something highly unusual on the fetal monitors. The heart rates of all three of the about-to-be-born infants suddenly and unexpectedly.… plummeted. From a healthy and brisk 100 to 120 beats per minute they slowed by half, to a frightening 40 to 60. The tiny hearts “lay low” like this for two minutes and then returned to normal.
    All three babies, who hadn’t yet even heard their parents’ voices outside the womb, responded physiologically, with bradycardia, to the sound of danger. Some of the slowing may have resulted from the sounds of the siren itself and some from maternal stress hormones entering the fetus’s body in response to the siren. Either way, these obstetrical observations strongly suggest that even prior to birth itself, we’re equipped with unconscious anti-predator defenses, including a potent alarm bradycardia response. All three babies were ultimately born healthy, as well as apparently armed with the full complement of survival instincts we all possess but rarely think about.