Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind

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Adı:
Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind
Baskı tarihi:
2011
Sayfa sayısı:
480
Format:
Karton kapak
ISBN:
9780205015627
Dil:
Türkçe
Ülke:
Türkiye
Yayınevi:
Pearson
Composed of cutting-edge research and featuring an engaging writing style, the author offers compelling scientific answers to the profound human questions regarding love and work.

Beginning with a historical introduction, the text logically progresses by discussing adaptive problems humans face and ends with a chapter showing how the new field of evolutionary psychology encompasses all branches of psychology. Each chapter is alive with the subjects that most occupy our minds: sex, mating, getting along, getting ahead, friends, enemies, and social hierarchies. Why is child abuse 40 times more prevalent among step-families than biologically intact families? Why, according to one study, did 75% of men but 0% of women consent to have sex with a complete stranger? Buss explores these intriguing quandaries with his vision of psychology in the new millennium as a new science of the mind.

Anyone with an interest in the biological facets of human psychology will find this a fascinating read. (less)
Kitaba henüz inceleme eklenmedi.
Personality psychology might be the broadest and the most encompassing branch of psychology. Historically, all “grand” theories of personality have hypotheses about the contents of human nature at their core, such as motives for sex and aggression (Sigmund Freud), self-actualization (Abraham Maslow), striving for superiority (Adler), or striving for status and intimacy (David McClelland, Henry Murray, & Jerry Wiggins). Hypothesized psychological features of human nature have provided much of the “core” around which these grand theories of personality have been constructed.

On the other hand, personality psychology has also been centrally concerned with individual differences: What are the most important ways individuals differ? What are the origins of individual differences? What are the psychological and physiological correlates of individual differences? What are the consequences of individual differences for social interaction, psychopathology, well-being, and the life course?
Do attachment styles represent early environmental calibration, or do they reflect heritable individual differences, as suggested by some research (Bailey, Kirk, Zhu, Dunne, & Martin, 2000; Goldsmith & Harman, 1994)? Are individual differences in attachment stable over the life course? Do the underlying psychological mechanisms of attachment coordinate with the specific features of adaptive problems posed by each alternative strategy? These questions await further conceptual and empirical work. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that early age of menarche is indeed linked with parental marital unhappiness and more rejection from the father, as well as with an earlier age of dating men. This suggests promise for the theory of early attachment in promoting different adult sexual strategies (Kim, Smith, & Palermiti, 1997), although it is not inconsistent with a pure heritability interpretation (see Ellis, 2005, for a discussion). Recent empirical work also supports the theory that a low quality childhood environment, especially one marked by an absent father, a psychologically dysfunctional father, and family disruption, does indeed predict an early age of menarche, which can lead to early onset of sexual activity and a short-term mating strategy (Neberich, Penke, Lehnart, & Asendorpf, 2010; Tither & Ellis, 2008).
Killing a wife imposes a cost on the perpetrator as well as the victim, as the husband has essentially destroyed any access to a reproductively valuable asset. Killing a wife, therefore, seems genuinely puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. Wilson and Daly (1996) explain this puzzle by proposing that violence is a means of deterrence. Threats require credibility to be effective. Men, according to this logic, sometimes use violence to enhance the credibility of their threats. The violence, and even killing, seems quite counter to the man’s self-interest. But if the violence increases the credibility of the threats, then it can pay off, on average, when the man is able to subsequently use threats without resorting to actual violence.
Are people deceiving themselves? Do we really want reciprocal rewards but fool ourselves into believing that we help our friends out of the goodness of our hearts? Tooby and Cosmides (1996) argue that we should attend to people’s intuitions, for they provide a cue that friendships might not be based solely on reciprocal exchange.
The social behaviour of a species evolves in such a way that in each distinct behaviourevoking situation the individual will seem to value his neighbours’ fitness against his own according to the coefficients of relationship appropriate to that situation. (Hamilton, 1964, p. 23)
David Buss
Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior. I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–52.
The hormone testosterone (T) plays a key role in male mating effort, the time and energy devoted to pursuing mates and besting same-sex competitors (Ellison, 2001). Higher T levels facilitate male pursuit of females, and T levels increase a er interacting with an attractive woman (Roney, Mahler, & Maestripieri, 2003). Maintaining high levels of T, though, can be costly for men. T can compromise immune functioning, and because it is linked with mating effort, it may interfere with parenting effort (it’s difficult for a man to be a good parent if he’s always pursuing other women). Consequently, evolutionists have hypothesized that T levels should drop a er a man succeeds in attracting a long-term mate, and studies have found precisely that effect (Burnham et al., 2003; Gray et al., 2004). One study found that men in committed relationships had 21 percent lower T levels than unpaired men (see Figure 5.6). Another found that men in long-term relationships (more than 12 months) had substantially lower T levels than single men or men in newly formed relationships (less than 12 months) (Farrelly, Owens, Elliott, Walden, & Wetherell, 2015). Married men who had children had even lower levels of T.
These data show that children living with one genetic parent and one stepparent are roughly 40 times more likely to be physically abused than children living with both genetic parents. This greater risk rate occurs even when other factors such as poverty and socioeconomic status are controlled. There is indeed a higher rate of child abuse in low-income families, but it turns out that the rates in stepfamilies are roughly the same across different levels of socioeconomic status.
Female sexuality, from a male perspective, is an extraordinarily valuable reproductive resource. From a female perspective, this resource is extremely fungible, meaning that it can be exchanged or converted into other resources (Meston & Buss, 2009). We can expect future research to explore the complexity of female short-term sexual psychology by clarifying which women pursue short-term mating in which contexts to secure which adaptive benefits.
[Women] not rarely run away with a favoured lover… . We thus see that… the women are not in quite so abject a state in relation to marriage as has often been supposed. They can tempt the men they prefer, and sometimes can reject those whom they dislike, either before or after marriage
Researchers have made progress in identifying the underlying brain mechanisms involved in love (Bartels & Zeki, 2004; Fisher, Aron, & Brown, 2005). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, researchers scanned the brains of individuals who were intensely in love while they thought about their loved one. The specific areas of the brain that “lit up” (showed an increased blood flow, indicating changes in neural activity) centered on the caudate nucleus and the ventral tegmental areas. These areas contain cells that produce dopamine, which stimulates the reward centers of the brain, analogous to experiencing a “rush” of cocaine (Fisher, 2006). Thus, researchers are beginning to make progress in identifying the underlying brain circuits involved in the psychological state of love.
According to conventional wisdom in the social sciences, “love” is a relatively recent invention, introduced a few hundred years ago by romantic European poets (Jankowiak, 1995). Research suggests that this conventional wisdom is radically wrong. There is evidence that loving thoughts, emotions, and actions are experienced by people in cultures worldwide—from the Zulu in the southern tip of Africa to the Inuit in the cold northern ice caps of Alaska. In a survey of 168 diverse cultures around the world, anthropologists William Jankowiak and Edward Fischer examined four sources of evidence for the presence of love: the singing of love songs, elopement by lovers against the wishes of parents, cultural informants reporting personal anguish and longing for a loved one, and folklore depicting romantic entanglements. They found evidence for romantic love in 88.5 percent of the cultures (Jankowiak, 1995; Jankowiak & Fischer, 1992). Clearly love is not a phenomenon limited to the United States or to Western cultures.

Kitabın basım bilgileri

Adı:
Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind
Baskı tarihi:
2011
Sayfa sayısı:
480
Format:
Karton kapak
ISBN:
9780205015627
Dil:
Türkçe
Ülke:
Türkiye
Yayınevi:
Pearson
Composed of cutting-edge research and featuring an engaging writing style, the author offers compelling scientific answers to the profound human questions regarding love and work.

Beginning with a historical introduction, the text logically progresses by discussing adaptive problems humans face and ends with a chapter showing how the new field of evolutionary psychology encompasses all branches of psychology. Each chapter is alive with the subjects that most occupy our minds: sex, mating, getting along, getting ahead, friends, enemies, and social hierarchies. Why is child abuse 40 times more prevalent among step-families than biologically intact families? Why, according to one study, did 75% of men but 0% of women consent to have sex with a complete stranger? Buss explores these intriguing quandaries with his vision of psychology in the new millennium as a new science of the mind.

Anyone with an interest in the biological facets of human psychology will find this a fascinating read. (less)

Kitabı okuyanlar 8 okur

  • Hakan Güneş
  • Canip Doğan
  • Şevval Dursun
  • Yaïr  φ
  • Dantalian
  • Sdys
  • Y T
  • Berfun Berçin

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