Is Islam neutral towards the idea of biological evolution? Does it support it or categorically reject it? Can it accept certain aspects while rejecting others? These questions are explored within the framework of classical Islamic scholarship by bringing an accurate, up-to-date understanding of Evolutionary Biology to a systematic consideration of the traditional Islamic sciences. Encompassing the scholarly traditions generally recognized - at least by their respective adherents - as "Sunni" orthodoxy (Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamaah), the book examines the works of Ashaari, Maturidi, and Salafi scholars as well as the sources which they draw upon - the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and the opinions of the Salaf. After identifying the issues within the field of Evolutionary Biology to be brought under scrutiny, the study draws on traditional Islamic sources to apply the methods of classical Islamic Theology to the claims of Evolutionary Biology. The result is an extrapolation of what an orthodox Islamic position towards biological evolution could be. Finally, this "classical" Islamic position on evolution is compared with the writings of various contemporary Muslim scholars who hold contrary views. Possible reasons for the differences are explored. This interdisciplinary work should provide a valuable frame of reference for a more accurate analysis of the creation-evolution debate currently unfolding in the Muslim world. It is of particular interest to those who are concerned with Islamic thought and the relationship between religion and science.