Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey

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Adı:
Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey
Baskı tarihi:
31 Ağustos 2017
Sayfa sayısı:
242
Format:
Karton kapak
ISBN:
978-1138644953
Dil:
Türkçe
Yayınevi:
Routledge
Since the establishment in 1945 of a constitutional democracy, political parties have figured prominently in Turkish politics. This book, first published in 1991, examines the role they have played. Key features of the political culture of the Turkish republic have created dilemmas for multi-party democracy: Atatürkism still exerts a powerful influence on the country’s bureaucratic and military elites. With their notion of ‘responsible leadership’ and of democracy as rational intellectual debate in pursuit of the ‘best’ policy, they have expected an unrealistic degree of idealism and statesmanlike behaviour from the leaders of political parties. Three times, in 1960, 1971 and 1980, the military has intervened in politics – on the third occasion to undertake wholesale constitutional and legal restructuring aimed at producing ‘sensible’ politicians. Given these ambiguous circumstances, what role have the political parties themselves played in the promotion and functioning of democracy in Turkey, and what are their attitudes to the issues involved? This collection of essays discusses political parties since the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923 until the 1990s. With contributions from leading political scientists and historians of modern Turkey, it is indispensable reading for all those concerned with the country.
Kitaba henüz inceleme eklenmedi.
The JP's policies were more moderate than its programme; for instance, the party never considered selling the state economic enterprises to the private sector.
According to Gürsel and those around him, the 'head' of the monster was destroyed but the 'tail' remained. The more they attacked the 'tail' the more people became sympathetic to the JP.
In August 1960, the NUC carried out a major purge of the military forces. More than 5000 officers were dismissed. Among them were 235 generals, out of 245 then serving, including the Chief of General Staff Ragıp Gümüşpala. Consequently, most of these officers became critical of the Government. Gümüşpala, while in the army, had stated that if one day he entered political life, he would certainly join İsmet İnönü's political party (RPP). But, after having been dismissed from the army, he changed his mind. He talked in İzmir to Mehmet Yorgancıoğlu (who was active in the founding of the JP) and proposed to participate in the establishment of a new party which would be a continuation of the DP.
Indeed the fact is that the organization of the JP was the strongest of all Turkish political parties in the 1960s and 1970s, predating its leadership. Generally, in Turkey the leaders emerge first and they establish the organization later. In the case of the JP, the opposite happened. It is possible to say that it was the organization that found Demirel and raised him to leadership.
The JP's desiderata were quite clear and simple. The government should be free to choose its chief executives, the State Planning Organization (SPO) should be reduced to a consultative body, and the autonomy of the universities assigned to the academic field only and the power of the Constitutional Court, Council of State and the High Election Council limited, also. For all this, the constitution should be changed. But the JP never had the two thirds majority needed for this.
At this juncture for the JP, Türk-İş became crucial. Without it, the JP could hardly check DİSK's militant activities. Thus in 1969 and 1970, the JP government introduced important changes in the Trade Unions Law. These were prepared jointly by the JP and Türk-İş, and were intended to strengthen the latter against DİSK and somehow to moderate the strikes and tensions in labour relations.
The change of the election system prior to the general elections of 1969, also achieved with the help of RPP, was another mistake. As a consequence, the small political parties of the extreme right and left were almost eliminated from parliament. So the radical movements turned increasingly to terrorist activities.
Demirel began to attack the political structures provided by the 1961 constitution. So the conflict between the JP, which wished for unlimited supremacy for the political will, and the bureaucracy became operative and then changed style. The JP using governmental authority, tried to erode what the bureaucracy had won.
The Turkish revolution was not definitely a social revolution aimed at realizing radical change in the existing social structure. (...) The immediate goal of the leaders of the Turkish revolution was not to change the peasants' fate fundamentally or to grant them increased political power. (...) As Frederick W. Frey has shown, the Turkish revolution exploited the divisions between the elite and the masses.
On the one hand, the RPP maintained a certain loyalty to the old elites’ historical concept of leadership while, on the other hand, it attempted to create a new political mechanism, that is, the modern party organization, and to imbue it with populist vision and democratic ideals while, at the same time, keeping it confined within the framework of the old elitist philosophy. The obvious conflict between elitism and democracy was solved ultimately in favour of the latter.

Kitabın basım bilgileri

Adı:
Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey
Baskı tarihi:
31 Ağustos 2017
Sayfa sayısı:
242
Format:
Karton kapak
ISBN:
978-1138644953
Dil:
Türkçe
Yayınevi:
Routledge
Since the establishment in 1945 of a constitutional democracy, political parties have figured prominently in Turkish politics. This book, first published in 1991, examines the role they have played. Key features of the political culture of the Turkish republic have created dilemmas for multi-party democracy: Atatürkism still exerts a powerful influence on the country’s bureaucratic and military elites. With their notion of ‘responsible leadership’ and of democracy as rational intellectual debate in pursuit of the ‘best’ policy, they have expected an unrealistic degree of idealism and statesmanlike behaviour from the leaders of political parties. Three times, in 1960, 1971 and 1980, the military has intervened in politics – on the third occasion to undertake wholesale constitutional and legal restructuring aimed at producing ‘sensible’ politicians. Given these ambiguous circumstances, what role have the political parties themselves played in the promotion and functioning of democracy in Turkey, and what are their attitudes to the issues involved? This collection of essays discusses political parties since the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923 until the 1990s. With contributions from leading political scientists and historians of modern Turkey, it is indispensable reading for all those concerned with the country.