Anthropocentric arguments have long exercised their inﬂuence on thinking about animals in the history of Western philosophy. These arguments have their roots in Aristotle, and particularly in the thought of the Stoics, Saint Augustine, Saint Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, and Kant. These philosophers’ views about animals are linked by an underlying logic: that all and only human beings are worthy of moral consideration, because all and only human beings are rational and endowed with language. Only such beings are capable of genuine self-determination and moral responsibiliy, and are moral beings in the most complete and authentic sense. As nonrational beings, animals are due less moral consideration than human beings, and on some accounts animals are due no moral consideration whatsoever.