Nadir Suğur

Nadir Suğur

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Adı:
Nadir Suğur
Unvan:
Türk Akademisyen
Doğum:
Fatsa, Ordu, 1963
1963 yılında Fatsa'da doğdu. Lisans derecesini Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Sosyoloji Bölümü'nde, doktora eğitimini ise İngiltere'de Bristol Üniversitesi'nde tamamladı. 1995 yılında Anadolu Üniversitesi’nde yardımcı doçent, 1997 yılında doçent ve 2003 yılında profesör oldu. 1994 yılında İngiltere'de Bristol Üniversitesi’nde dersler verdi. 1999-2002 yılları arasında Britanya'da Cardiff Üniversitesi’nde misafir öğretim üyesi olarak bulundu. Prof. Dr. Nadir Suğur'un Erol Kahveci ve Theo Nichols ile birlikte Work and Occupation in Modern Turkey adlı derleme kitabı Mansell tarafından 1996 yılında ve elinizdeki kitabı da Global Management and Local Labour adıyla MacMillan-Palgrave tarafından 2004 yılında yayımlanmıştır. Türkiye'de endüstrileşme, çalışma yaşamı ve özelleştirme üzerine çok sayıda yerli (ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, New Perspectives on Turkey, Toplum ve Bilim, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi) ve yabancı (Middle Eastern Studies, Work Employment and Society, British Journal of Sociology, Industrial Relations Journal, Sociological Review) dergilerde yayını bulunmaktadır.
The economy of the pre-modern society, in which production and consumption were materialized at the house level, was the livelihood economy. In the modern society, production, variation, circulation, sharing and consumption relations actualize in the market by going out of the house.
Although they are related, the methodological approaches in social sciences should not be confused with theoretical approaches. Every theoretical approach is related to a methodological approach.
Socialization is the interaction process in which the individuals learn the language, values, norms, attitudes, knowledge and skills, in short, the culture of the society they live in. (...) There are two functions of the socialization process. The first is to develop the self; the second is the transmission of culture to new generations. Societies reproduce themselves by transmitting their values, social actions, the cultural heritage from generation to generation (Coser et al., 1983:106). Through the process of socialization, societies make every generation learn the values and norms and fulfill the expectations of that society. (...) Internal social control is the social control that we impose on ourselves. (...) Socialization must not be confused with socializing. Socializing is interacting with other people, the members of the family or workplace, or friends. Socialization is the process in which the individual learns how to be a member of the society he/she lives in, the process that prepares them to function in social life.
Social classes are not supported by legal inequalities. Everybody has equal rights before the law. Upper classes do not have legal authority on the lower classes.
Norms are the rules resultant of values; they are binding expectations of behaviors. In other words, norms are the visible and invisible rules of conduct. They define how to behave in accordance with what a society has defined as good, right, and important. (...) Folkways indicate the appropriate behavior in the daily life practices of a given culture. They are relatively weak norms and their sanctions are not very heavy. (...) On the other hand, mores are strong and important norms of the society. The members of the society believe that mores should be obeyed in order to maintain the society. As a consequence, their sanctions are quite heavy. The strongest mores are often legally protected with laws. (...) While folkways do not include moral principles, mores embody the moral principles of the society of the group.
Sanctions are the anticipated consequence of violating the rules and the norms. They are used to make members of the society follow the norms. Thus, sanctions are mechanisms of social control. (...) Sanctions may be positive or negative.
There are three main methodological approaches in social sciences. These are the Positivist, the Interpretive and the Critical approaches. In addition to these, there are Feminist and Postmodern approaches. However, the three main approaches are the most commonly used approaches. (...) Although there are fundamental differences among them, all of the three main approaches in social sciences are empirical, systematical and theoretical.

Positivist Approach: (Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim) Positivist approach depends on the assertion that science has only one logic and for an intellectual activity to be considered as scientific, it has to match this logic. In other words, there is only one scientific method, all sciences use this method, the only difference among them is their study subjects. (...) Positivist approach claims that the social world is not different from the physical world, social facts are independent of human activity, and there are social laws like physical laws, which wait to be discovered. For this reason, positivist approach uses the methods of physical sciences to explain the facts and causalities in the social world.

Interpretive Approach: Also known as Hermeneutic Approach, Interpretive approach depends on the thoughts of Wilhelm Dilthey and Max Weber. (...) Hermeneutics is concerned with problems that arise when dealing with meaningful human actions and the products of such actions, most importantly texts. The Interpretive approach claims that unlike the physical world, which exist independent of human activity, the social world is established through the cultural relations, the meaningful and intentional actions of people. According to Interpretive approach, social facts are not fixed and stable, they constantly continue to be established. (...) Interpretive approach is mainly criticized for ignoring the objective processes which are not influenced by the interactions and information of individuals, and for being too subjective and relativist.

Critical Approach: Critical approach depends on the thoughts of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. This approach has some characteristics of both Positivist and Interpretive approaches. It claims that social reality exists outside and independent of human actions as put forward by Positivism. However, unlike Positivism, the Critical approach argues that social reality is shaped by social, political, economic and cultural factors. According to Critical approach, social reality changes in time, it is not possible to understand it only by looking at its superficial appearance. The Critical approach focuses on the conflict and change in society, especially on the conflicts and contradictions in the organization modes of society. This conflict and change are not always in an observable situation, the social world may be full of illusions, myths and distortions of social reality. Under the observable surface of social realities, there lies deep structures and mechanisms. The relation and events on the surface of the social reality arise from the operation of these nonobservable deeper mechanisms. According to Critical approach, the purpose of social science is to criticize and transform social relations. This transformation will be possible by revealing the underlying mechanisms of social relations and thus by providing power to powerless people.

Feminist Approach: The purpose of feminist research is to reveal how gender and power relations are penetrated in every aspect of social life and to empower powerless women in patriarchal societies.

Postmodern Approach: Postmodern approach is philosophically based on existentialism, nihilism, anarchism and the thoughts of Heidegger, Nietzsche, Sartre and Wittgenstein. According to Postmodern approach, there is no difference between social science and art or literature. (...) Postmodern approach rejects all organized belief systems, including social theory. It also rejects the notion of the linear historical development and progress. For Postmodern approach, the social world is a fractured, chaotic, complicated world which rapidly and continuously changes. It considers only the here and now as valid, thus it rejects to examine the past or other places. It argues that casualty can not be examined because social life is too complicated and rapidly changing.
Types of society

In the most general level, societies before the 18th century are called “traditional societies”. In the Western world, the majority of the traditional societies transformed through Enlightenment, Scientific and Political Revolutions and the Industrial Revolution, and a new society emerged. This new type of society is called “the industrial society” or “the modern society”.

1-Hunting and Gathering Societies: 50.000 BC-Present. (...) This type of society consists of small numbers of people, such as 30-40 people. (...) In this type of society, there is very little social inequality, and the inequalities are based on honor rather than wealth. Because they do not do agriculture, they do not have long-term storable food. The material goods they have and use are very limited, they have their weapons, traps and cooking tools. As a consequence, there are no rich and poor people, and there are no divisions depending on wealth. The social divisions and the division of labor is based on age and sex. This type of society is based on cooperation, there is no competition among people. They are generally participatory societies and all male members gather together when important decisions are taken. However, the thoughts of the oldest men are more important.

2-Pastoral Societies: Pastoral societies are the societies in which the gain of livelihood is based on domesticated livestock such as cattle or sheep. These societies generally live in areas which are not suitable for agriculture. These societies consist of a larger population than hunting and gathering societies. Their population varies from a few hundred people to many thousand people. There is also more social inequality in this type of societies. Members of pastoral societies are engaged in trade and this causes a division between the rich and the poor. In these societies, there are non-economic social inequalities, too; for example, the chiefs, warlords, and leaders have extensive personal power. This type of society has emerged in 12,000 BC and today many pastoral societies exist, particularly in Africa, Middle East and Central Asia (Giddens, 2005: 49).

3-Agrarian Societies: Agrarian societies are the societies of small rural communities which are engaged in agriculture. They often hunt animals and gather edible plants in addition to agricultural production. Their existence period is approximately same with pastoral societies. The first form of agrarian is the “horticultural societies”, in which people cultivated small gardens with simple tools. Agrarian societies are settled societies and develop regular trading and political ties with other societies. There are important economic inequalities among people (Giddens, 2005: 51).

4-Traditional States: The societies known as traditional states or non-industrial civilizations existed between 6000 BC to 19th century. Traditional societies were smaller than industrial societies, but larger than all the former types of societies, some reached to millions of people. (...) This is the first society type in which not most of the people are engaged in food production. People in traditional states are also engaged in trade and nonagricultural production. Traditional states are not completely rural societies; they have some cities in which traders or manufacturers concentrate. While the division of labor is based on sex and age in hunting and gathering, pastoral or agrarian societies; there is a complex division of labor in the traditional states. Although the division of labor by sex continued, specialized jobs emerged in the traditional societies. The main occupation groups are merchants, courtiers, government administrators, clergies and soldiers. There are major inequalities among the different groups, especially between aristocratic groups and the rest of the society. The members of the aristocracy had much more wealth and held the political power. There are no traditional states in the contemporary world, this type of society completely disappeared (Giddens, 2005: 55).

5-Industrial (Modern) Societies: Industrial Revolution (1700s) began with the emergence of non-living resources of energy (such as electricity), which enabled the machine production. (...) With the concentration of industry and production in factories in cities, large amounts of people migrated from rural areas to urban areas. Industrial society refers to a type of society in which the majority of the production is industrial and most of the people work as industrial workers in factories, offices or shops and live in urban areas. Industrial Revolution and Political Revolutions (such as French Revolution) were the main elements that revealed the modern society. The modern society is an industrialized, urbanized, secularized society which is politically formed as a nation-state.

6-Post-Industrial Societies: With the technological changes in the 20th century, a new type of society emerged. In the post industrial society, the majority of the production shifted from industrial production to service sector. The service sector, including communication, health, banking and insurance had a larger proportion in industry than before. Information and technology gained more importance.
The sciences, in the most general sense, are divided into two; the mathematic sciences and positive sciences. Mathematical sciences are divided into mathematic and logic. Positive sciences are divided into physical sciences and social sciences.
Social structure is the perpetual, continuous and organized relations among the groups and social institutions that consist the society.
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Yazarın biyografisi

Adı:
Nadir Suğur
Unvan:
Türk Akademisyen
Doğum:
Fatsa, Ordu, 1963
1963 yılında Fatsa'da doğdu. Lisans derecesini Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Sosyoloji Bölümü'nde, doktora eğitimini ise İngiltere'de Bristol Üniversitesi'nde tamamladı. 1995 yılında Anadolu Üniversitesi’nde yardımcı doçent, 1997 yılında doçent ve 2003 yılında profesör oldu. 1994 yılında İngiltere'de Bristol Üniversitesi’nde dersler verdi. 1999-2002 yılları arasında Britanya'da Cardiff Üniversitesi’nde misafir öğretim üyesi olarak bulundu. Prof. Dr. Nadir Suğur'un Erol Kahveci ve Theo Nichols ile birlikte Work and Occupation in Modern Turkey adlı derleme kitabı Mansell tarafından 1996 yılında ve elinizdeki kitabı da Global Management and Local Labour adıyla MacMillan-Palgrave tarafından 2004 yılında yayımlanmıştır. Türkiye'de endüstrileşme, çalışma yaşamı ve özelleştirme üzerine çok sayıda yerli (ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, New Perspectives on Turkey, Toplum ve Bilim, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi) ve yabancı (Middle Eastern Studies, Work Employment and Society, British Journal of Sociology, Industrial Relations Journal, Sociological Review) dergilerde yayını bulunmaktadır.

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