Richard Norman

Richard Norman

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Adı:
Richard Norman
Tam adı:
Richard J. Norman
Unvan:
Filozof, Yazar, Akademisyen
Doğum:
İngiltere, 7 Ekim 1943
Richard J. Norman, BA, PhD, İngiliz bir akademisyen, filozof ve hümanisttir. Halen Kent Üniversitesi'nde Ahlak Felsefesi Emeritus Profesörü ve İngiltere Hümanistleri Başkan Yardımcısıdır.
If one's emotions and desires are not guided by reason, one lives in a fantasy world. If one's rational capacities are not motivated by emotions and desires, one lapses into a state of meaninglessness.
...in caring for other people, I do so because I think that it will make my own life happier, then it would seem that it is not really a concern for others which motivates me, but a concern for myself. From the above standpoint, the action then ceases to be morally admirable.
According to Hume, what makes various qualities 'virtues' is that they are useful or agreeable, either to their possessor or to others.
This possible development of Aristotelian ethics was in fact taken up by Catholic theology, most notably by the medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas. It then becomes the basis of a so-called 'natural law' morality. Two examples will illustrate the role of 'function' in Catholic morality. Since human beings have been created by God to live and to perpetuate their own being, suicide is wrong. And since human beings have been given sexuality in order to reproduce and perpetuate the species, contraception, frustrating this proper purpose of sexuality, is wrong.
Anthony Kenny has pointed out interesting similarities between Plato's theory and Freudian psychology. Both of them offer an account of mental health in terms of a harmony between the three parts of the personality. Freud, in his later works, divided the psyche into the ego, the super-ego, and the id. The ego and the id correspond very closely to Plato's reason and desire. What Freud understands by 'the super-ego' is rather narrower than Plato's 'spirit'.
Plato's psychology, like his politics, has an authoritarian cast. He believes that, for the proper inner harmony to be achieved, reason, in alliance with spirit, must exercise a strict control over the desires, inhibiting some, and eliminating others. (...)

Like Plato, Freud sees such repression as inescapable, both within society and within the individual, if civilized human life is to be viable. However Freud also recognizes that, beyond a certain point, excessive repression becomes harmful and self-defeating. Desires which are repressed do not simply disappear, they continue to exist, but remain unconscious. If the repression is too severe, the thwarted desires find expression in substitute satisfactions.
The core of the ethical systems of both Plato and Aristotle is the attempt to justify the virtues in terms of human happiness, to show that they are good qualities to possess, because a life lived in accordance with the virtues is the happiest and most rewarding kind of life.
Honour, pleasure, intelligence, and the virtues are, he says, not only aimed at as ends in themselves, but are also aimed at for the sake of happiness, whereas happiness is never pursued for the sake of anything else. And because these other things are both ends and means, whereas happiness is never a means to anything else...
In his Politics (Book I Ch. 5) he claims that some human beings are slaves by nature. Rationality is distinctive of all human beings, but natural slaves possess it in a lesser degree, and so likewise do women, since their distinctive functions also are different. The proper function of women is to obey men. And the proper function of natural slaves is to obey those who are by nature masters, since the former possess sufficient reason to understand rational principles, but not to formulate them for themselves. For Aristotle, then, the fully human life can be lived only by the free-born male citizen.
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Yazarın biyografisi

Adı:
Richard Norman
Tam adı:
Richard J. Norman
Unvan:
Filozof, Yazar, Akademisyen
Doğum:
İngiltere, 7 Ekim 1943
Richard J. Norman, BA, PhD, İngiliz bir akademisyen, filozof ve hümanisttir. Halen Kent Üniversitesi'nde Ahlak Felsefesi Emeritus Profesörü ve İngiltere Hümanistleri Başkan Yardımcısıdır.

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