• There are five main sub branches of civil law. These are:

    1.Law of persons: Law of persons is the field of law that deals with the concept of person, types of persons, real persons, legal persons, beginning of personality and end of personality, concept of personality, protection of personality, capacity, types of capacity, different categories according to their capacity to act, domicile, kinship, associations (societies) and foundations.

    2.Family law: Family law’s main concern is the family, therefore, engagement, marriage, divorce, parental authority are the most important topics. Also guardianship and adaption are other important areas.

    3.Law of succession: Law of succession is a field of law in which every real person shall be a part of in some time in their life, the latest when they die. Since all real persons shall die, this field is related to all of us. Legal heirs, reserved portion (statutory entitlement), testamentary disposition, deprivation of statutory entitlement, legacy, contract of succession, abatement and commencement of succession are some of the subjects.

    4.Law of property: Law of property’s main subject is the real rights. Real rights are the rights built on a property that give their owner the right to assert against all persons this right. Ownership, hypothec, usufruct are some examples of the real rights. Real rights enjoy the principle of publicity. The tools of publicity are possession for moveable property and land registry for immoveable property. Therefore, the concept of law of property covers possession, land registry and real rights.

    5.Law of obligations: Law of obligations is the field of law that mainly deals with obligations. Obligation is a legal bond that ties two persons in such a way that one of them, the creditor, is entitled to demand from the other, the debtor, a certain performance. There are three main sources of obligations in Turkish legal system; contracts, torts and unjust enrichment. In the general part, law of obligations deals with these sources, formation of an obligation, performance, non-performance and some modalities related with an obligation such as penalty clause, condition, joint liability and discharge of obligations. In the special part, specific types of contracts are the main focus point, like sales contract, surety ship contract, rental contract and construction contract.

    Civil Code governs the first four sub branches and the Code of Obligations governs the last sub branch.
  • What do Neanderthal bodies tell us about them? From the basic structure of the bones, we know that they were extremely strong. From the extensive level of injuries found on the bones and the relatively young estimated ages at death for Neanderthals (few Neanderthal skeletons belonged to individuals who lived past the age of forty), we can surmise that life was hard for them. They probably fought animals at close range as part of the strategy of ambush hunting that developed back in Homo heidelbergensis times. And, indeed, it is likely that they fought each other, as all human groups do, except that they had an enhanced ability to inflict lasting damage.
    Like us, they were mostly right-handed, and their arm bones show that their right arm muscles were stronger than their left arm muscles. But unlike us, their right arms were very much stronger than their left arms, a difference rarely seen today except among professional tennis players. It is likely that Neanderthals performed repetitive activities such as scraping hides for clothing, leading to a pronounced asymmetry in their body strength. It is possible that clothes-making through scraping was a significant burden on the Neanderthals’ time. Bone needles are known only from modern human sites in later periods, and this probably means that Neanderthals did not have the advantage of tailored clothing.
    Chris Stringer and a number of collaborators have looked at Neanderthal teeth, which leave growth marks not unlike tree rings. It has become evident that Neanderthals matured much faster than Homo sapiens. For example, a Neanderthal child from Le Moustier showed a level of maturation of a modern sixteen-year-old but has been estimated to have been only twelve years old. Modern humans’ more extended period of childhood meant that Homo sapiens had (and still have) more time for learning before having to take adult responsibilities. It is interesting to speculate how longer childhoods may have given modern humans an advantage, and it may just be that a longer period of teenage risk-taking helped spur a faster rate of innovation.
  • The bare idea of this is no doubt horribly repulsive to us, but at the same time I think that we should remember how repulsive our carnivorous habits would seem to an intelligent rabbit.
  • May this new year all your dreams turn into reality and all your efforts into great achievements.
    New year begins, let us pray, that it will be a year with peace, happiness, and abundance of new friends, ALLAH bless you throughout the new year.
    A new year is a chance to make new beginnings and letting go of old regret// HAPPY NEW YEAR FOR ALL DEAR FRIENDS !
  • And Mr. Nancy cleared his throat and said, “So. I got to say it, because nobody else here will. We are at the center of this place: a land that has no time for gods, and here at the center it has less time for us than anywhere. It is a no-man’s-land, a place of truce, and we observe our truces, here. We have no choice. So. You give us the body of our friend. We accept it. You will pay for this, murder for murder, blood for blood."
  • For almost a generation, psychologists around the world have been engaged in a spirited debate over a question that most of us would consider to have been settled years ago. The question is this: is there such a thing as innate talent? The obvious answer is yes. Not every hockey player born in January ends up playing at the professional level. Only some do – the innately talented ones. Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger role preparation seems to play.