'Postcolonial' has emerged as a trend in literary and cultural research in search of addressing cultural conditions specific to newly independent societies. Its aim was primarily to demonstrate and subvert the cultural and psychological dimensions of colonial rule, recognizing that internal subjugation continued even long after the elimination of the political structures of colonialism. Thus, the main driver of post-colonialism has been Westernization and institutionalization. In this way, post –colonialism sought to give the developing world a political voice separate from the universalist claims of liberalism and socialism. Among the important factors in the emergence of postcolonial theory are the oppression of countries under colonial rule from all sides, the devalue of Indigenous culture, and the search for a system that goes beyond the values and judgments of the West and shows their rejection.
At the core of postcolonial theory, as mentioned earlier, the negative effects of colonialism the events in the process of colonialism reflect only situations that reflect sovereignty and oppression. Colonialism refers far beyond the verb to exploit. Postcolonial theory is a current that questions the sovereignty that the colonist established over the colony when the era of colonialism ended and the effects that this sovereignty created, which undoubtedly makes this query colonization. But there is a point to pay attention to. Colonialism in English cannot meet the word colonialism in Turkish. Colonialism means that a power takes over a region outside its borders and controls that region while using it for its own purposes. In doing so, it was necessary to influence or even change the identity of the region passing through the subject within the framework of certain discourses. In this direction, if colonialism were only colonialism, Western countries would use the resources of these regions for themselves, while the lives of those regional rights would continue in the same way. But it has not been that colonialism directly affects the life of a region's people, limits its human rights, clarifies it, removes it from the homeland.
This essay aims at studying and questioning the term Otherization in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Edward M. Forster's A Passage to India. Passages to other lands in the chosen novels are also passages into the unconscious, a source of covert longing that can expose a concealed self. Such passages mark the location of a profound mystery in which the secret of the Western self and unconscious realities are encoded, a mystery that is impossible and important, risky and precious to reveal. India in Forster's novel and Congo in Conrad's novel indicate that peculiar site where in the words of Edward Said invoking how the Orient may be experienced through an Orientalist lens, 'something patently foreign and distant acquires, for one reason or another, a status more rather than less familiar'.
Although Conrad's most well-known book, Heart of Darkness (1899), is set during European invasion of Africa, E.M. Forster's most popular novel, A Passage to India (1924), deals with ethnic relationships in India during the British Raj and the independence struggle at the beginning of the twentieth century. Otherization, which serves as a stumbling block to the progression of social and cultural interactions during colonial colonization, plays a significant role in both novels in stopping individuals of diverse cultures and ethnicities from constructing cultural bonds and shared understanding. The theory behind selecting these two novels is that they all deal directly and indirectly with the concept of Othering and depict its influence on the evolution of the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized, as well as the disastrous effects of colonization on cross-cultural relations. Many of these theories will be challenged in Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India.
Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India were able to show that colonization's primary goal was primarily commercial. The aim of colonizing and otherizing was to trade, to become a ruler from a merchant, to satisfy the primary interest of acquiring capital, which is expressed in both texts. The selected novels' European colonial focus on the African Congo and India is that these regions were zero invested lands with cheap labour, and the natives could be quickly exploited and stripped of their human rights. One of the issues raised by this study is whether both Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Forster's A Passage to India are capable of removing the barriers that were erected to enlarge the distance between the colonizer and the colonized, or whether this is a difficult feat due to the long and institutionalized colonial past.
Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India were published at various times and lengths, with Heart of Darkness being a novella and A Passage to India being a lengthy book. Conrad and Forster both use Britain's period of empire as a backdrop for their stories. Both stories examine British perceptions and actions in the exotic settings of the colonial frontier.
The protagonists in both novels struggle with the inherent inconsistency between systemic dehumanization for economic benefit and the moral rationale of civilizing thenatives in separate ways. Dehumanization occurs in Heart of Darkness, for example, where indigenous people are branded savages and are subjected to slavery and starvation as a result of imperialism's circumstances. In A Passage to India Ronny dehumanizes the indigenous people. He portrays himself as a deity in order to keep the nation united by coercion.
Both novels depict nationalism in the Congo and India. Marlow experiences scenes of torture, brutality, and near-slavery as he travels from the Outer Station to the Central Station and the Inner Station. The men who work for the Company call what they do trade, and their treatment of native Africans is part of a compassionate civilization initiative. Kurtz, on the other hand, is frank about the fact that he does not trade but only takes ivory by coercion, and he explains his own persecution of the natives as suppression and extermination : he does not conceal the fact that he rules by brutality and coercion. The episode of Marlow's experience with aboriginal people who are hungry, have old machines, and live in holes depicts the brutality of colonization, and as a result, people go insane. In A Passage to India, Forster criticizes the British way of ruling India. He believes that the British will benefit from being kinder and more sympathetic to the Indians with whom they coexist. As a result, the imperialism of these stories gives way to questions of race, brutality, and dehumanization.
Human relationships vary in both fictions. This partnerships are characterized by diverse cultures, languages, nationalities, and mindsets. These partnerships are often sweet, salty, and sour in A Passage to India. Aziz's friendships with Fielding and Mrs. Moore are endearing. Mrs. Moore is a gracious woman. She is very nice to Aziz, even though she does not think Aziz is guilty. Aziz also has a well-wisher, a true and loving friend in Fielding. He defends his best friend in front of the brutish court when he is accuses for the assault of Adela. However, their partnership suffered a major setback when Aziz objected to Fielding being a friend of Adela, the accuser. He also suspects Fielding will marry Adela. Aziz and Adela's relationship has also been strained when she accuses him of abuse. She, on the other hand, does not want to hurt Aziz. As she discovers the truth, she plays an important role in setting him free.
As a consequence, Heart of Darkness (1899) by Joseph Conrad and A Passage to India (1924) by E. M. Forster would be analyzed in terms of how both authors dealt with British colonial philosophy and how it developed the Otherization principle among citizens of both races in terms of intercultural relationships between the colonizer and the colonized.