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  • Downsizing Strategy: (...) it may create a negative impression, (...) fundamental purpose of the downsizing strategy is increasing efficiency. (...) the business stops the manufacturing of one or all of its products or shut down its operations partially or completely. The positive aspect of this strategy is the fact that the business can reduce its activities to reduce the costs. Thus, the business can ensure its survival. The negative aspect of this strategy for the business is the fact that once it halts the production of a product, it is difficult to begin the manufacturing and restore the competitive capabilities once again.
  • “Yes, peace will be here before we know it. In a week or two we'll be watching TV and learning how to become happy with a new deodorant. Then we’ll drive over to the mall and buy hundred dollar flip-flops and thousand dollar designer jeans and —all that will begin again. Oh, Mrs. Antrobus, God forgive me but I enjoyed the war. Everybody's at their best in wartime. I’m sorry it's over.”
  • Qualitative research design is based on Interpretive approach, which claims that social reality can be explained only after it is understood and interpreted. The researcher does not aim to explain the casualty relations between facts, s/he aims to understand and interpret the perspectives of the the social actors and the reasons and motivations of social actions. (...) Unlike quantitative researches, qualitative researches do not begin with hypotheses. The qualitative research process is more flexible than the quantitative research process. The qualitative research problems are not as precise as in quantitative research, and data are gathered with non-standardized measurement tools. The data gathering process is free and flexible, but not suitable for the repetition by other researchers. The qualitative researches do not have the aim of generalizing the findings and predicting social facts, thus their samples are smaller than the samples of quantitative researches. The samples are selected through non-probability (judgemental) sampling techniques.

    "The difference between nonprobability and probability sampling is that in probability sampling, units are selected randomly, but in nonprobability sampling they are judgmentally selected. "

    In qualitative research design, data are gathered through unstructured (not controlled, in-depth) interview, focus group interview, unstructured (not controlled) observation, semi-structured observation, life story interview, oral history, case study and document analysis. All of the data gathering instruments used in qualitative research are non-standardized instruments.

    Unstructured observation: Unlike the structured observation, an observation chart is not used in the unstructured observation. Although observers have an idea about what and how they are going to observe, they are free to observe additional behaviors or events. Unstructured observations are divided into participant and non-participant observations. In non-participant observation, the observer observes from outside. In participant observation, the researcher enters into the culture s/he observes, and tries to be partially or completely a member. However, the degree of participation may change. In regard to the participation degree, observers may have four different roles in observations:

    • Complete observer: The observer is neither seen nor noticed by the participants, s/he does not form interactions with the participants, observes from outside. People may change their behaviors when they are aware of the fact that they are being observed. This is an obstacle in observation and is called Hawthorne Effect. Complete observer role is a good strategy for minimizing the Hawthorne Effect.

    • Observer as participant: The researcher and the aim of the observation are known and recognized by participants. There is, but little, interaction between the researcher and the participants. The researcher tries to act neutral.

    • Participant as observer: There is full interaction between the researcher and the participants. The researcher becomes a partial member of the culture s/he observes, and establishes friendships with the participants.

    • Complete participant: The researcher acts as a complete member of the observed culture. The participants do not know that they are being observed, the identity of the researcher is hidden.

    Focus group interview: In focus group interviews, the researcher, according to specific criteria, selects 6-12 people as a sample and tells them the topic. Later the sample gathers and talks on this predetermined topic. Focus group interviews are especially effective if the researcher aims to observe the group interaction and group dynamics.

    Semi-structured observation: Semi-structured observations are used in order to check whether some social actions, which are observed before, are going to appear again. Often an observation form is used in this observation design.
  • Quantitative design depends on the Positivist approach, which advocates that the method of physical sciences should be used in social research. The aim of quantitative researches is to explore the social laws through revealing the casualty relations between social facts. Quantitative researches, with the principle of deduction, begin with theories and hypotheses. Concepts are transformed into measurable variables, the measurement instruments are developed elaborately, and data are gathered with precise measurements. The gathered data are analyzed through statistical methods. The statistical relationships between the variables are explained and the hypotheses of the research are tested. The measurement instruments, which are the tools used to gather data, are standardized. This standardization enables other researchers to repeat the research. The findings of the research are presented with charts, tables and graphics. Because quantitative researches aim to generalize their findings to the population, their samples are large and representative samples which are selected through probability sampling techniques.

    Data gathering techniques used in quantitative research design are structured (controlled) observation, structured (controlled) interview, questionnaire, experiment, quasi-experiment and survey.

    Structured (controlled) observation: In structured observation researchers use observation charts. These charts are standard for every observation of the research. These charts include instructions on what, where, how long the observation is going to be and guides observers on what to pay attention and how to record the observations. The observer strictly follows the instructions on the observation chart and does not observe anything else than stated. Thus, the observing process is controlled.

    Experiment: First, the properties of the two group are measured, this measurement is called pre-test. After pre-test, the dependent variable is subjected to the effect of the independent variable. The control groups is not subjected to any effect. Then the properties of the two groups are measured again. This measurement is called post-test.

    Quasi-experiment: Quasi-experiments are similar to experiments. They both aim to test hypotheses, however, the extrinsic factors are not totally under control in quasi-experiments. In quasi-experiments, the control group is not constituted in the beginning of the experiment. After observing the results of the experimental group, a new group is selected in order to make a comparison. This new group has similar characteristics with the experimental group but it is not formed in the laboratory environment.

    Surveys are wider than questionnaires and consume more time. Survey refers to the collection, recording, analysis and interpretation of data which are gathered with a variety of measurement techniques. This is why it is often referred as a research design rather than a technique.
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